Recovery Nutrition 101

If you’ve been working out for any length of time, you’ve undoubtedly heard about recovery drinks and snacks. But why do we need them? And who needs them? And most importantly, what are they?

For most athletes, it’s not hard to see why we need recovery nutrition. After all, if you’ve ever hobbled around the day after a hard workout because your muscles and joints were stiff and sore, you know that you depleted your body of something. And that depletion can really wreck your plans for a PR if you don’t do something about it.

First, replace the fluids you lost during your workout with water. The harder and longer you worked out, the more water you lost in sweat. Drink plenty of water or diluted sports drink after a hard workout, especially if you plan to work out again the next day (or later that same day).

Second, replace the carbs you lost during your workout. During long workouts or high intensity workouts, you can use up almost all of our glycogen stores. These are easy to replace but many athletes don’t do a great job of it, especially if they believe that carbs are bad for them. Drink and/or eat a high carb meal or snack within 30 minutes of completing a hard workout (not necessary after a shorter, low-intensity workouts) and then again in two hours. Try to make most of your post-workout meals high in carbs to refuel your glycogen stores. Your muscles might still be sore, but at least you’ll have energy to burn.

Third, add a little protein to that recovery meal or drink. Research shows that a small amount of protein right after a hard workout helps to repair the inevitable muscle damage that occurs during exercise. The key is to not overdo it; protein will not replace glycogen stores, only carbohydrate can do that. In fact, most sports scientists recommend a 4:1 ratio of carbohydrate to protein as the best strategy for maximizing muscle recovery and glycogen replacement.

The good news is that you don’t have to buy expensive bars, shakes, or pre-formulated products to get what you need. Regular food can do the trick. For example:

  • 8-10 oz milk with graham crackers
  • 8 – 10 oz chocolate milk with a few cookies or crackers and fresh fruit
  • Greek yogurt with fresh fruit and cookies
  • Fresh fruit, cheese, crackers and milk (soymilk is fine)
  • 1 cup of cereal with milk and fresh fruit
  • Bagel sandwich with peanut butter and honey
  • Sub sandwich with turkey, ham, or roast beef (and all the veggie fixins)
  • Pankcakes with skim/1% milk, fresh fruit
  • Powerbar with chocolate milk, fresh fruit
  • Pizza and non-alcoholic beer (more on that one later!)

There are lots of real-food options for recovery meals and snacks but the most important thing is to make them higher in carbohydrate, moderate in protein and to have them soon after a hard workout, along with a full glass of water.

Lastly, who needs recovery nutrition?  Anyone who plans to workout hard several days in a row, or anyone who plans on more than one workout per day, e.g., brick workouts for triathletes.  Glycogen stores can be depleted in one hard and/or intense workout so if you expect your body to go hard again later in the day or the next day, you have to replace the glycogen before that second bout of exercise.

Recovery nutrition isn’t rocket science but you have to make time for it and plan ahead. Keep high carb/protein snacks and drinks on hand and ready to go during your training season. Pop a sports bar in your gym bag or purse for those times when you don’t have access to real food. Just remember, a well-nourished athlete is a smart athlete!

A Beer A Day Keeps The Doctor Away?

Quite possibly so!  Lest you think you are dreaming (go ahead, pinch yourself), there really are significant health bennies to having a cold one after a hard workout.

According to new research, both regular and non-alcoholic beer (NA) have natural chemicals in them called “polyphenols”: substances that help reduce inflammation and the risk for an upper respiratory tract illness (URTI).

In fact, some 2000 organic compounds have been identified in beer, including 50 polyphenolic compounds from barley and hops. A liter of beer contains between 366 and 875 mg of polyphenols, making it a significant contributor to the average American’s phenolic intake. To top it off, polyphenols from beer are rapidly absorbed and have been shown to increase plasma antioxidant capacity in humans.

Surprisingly, NA beer is just as good for you. A recent study showed that NA beer consumed for 3 weeks prior to and 2 weeks after a marathon significantly reduced post-race inflammation and URTI incidence.

Reducing inflammation is nothing to sneeze at. Coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, cancer, and diabetes are all inflammation-associated diseases so anything that helps to reduce inflammation is a good thing.

Should you throw away your protein drinks and start guzzling beer after every hard workout?  Of course not. Aside from the polyphenols, beer has very little nutritional value and a lot of calories. You can easily gain excess body fat by over-indulging in beer every day, not to mention the “cognitive impairment” it may cause.

There are other ways to get polyphenols in your diet. For example, fruits and vegetables are “polyphenol powerhouses” that have strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pathogenic properties. You also get ample amounts of fiber, vitamins, and minerals from fruits and veggies – none of which are found in beer.

Bottom line?  Eat plenty of fruits and veggies on a regular basis to keep your immune system strong and healthy. However, enjoying a brewski now and then might just keep that doctor away for even longer!

Weighty Tips During The Off-Season

Want to gain 10 lbs of extra body fat over the next few months?  Of course you don’t, but most people do anyway. From November to January, many people gain 10 lbs or more and triathletes are not immune to this lovely phenomenon.

Why? It’s simple. During the racing season, multi-sport athletes (or some single-sport athletes) can burn upwards of 3000 – 4000 calories per day, depending on age, gender, intensity of training, etc.  For most of us, that season is usually from January through October (give or take a few months).

Then boom, we stop training. We don’t become total sloths but we’re in “recovery mode” and we don’t want to do brick workouts or run 10 miles a day, thank you very much.

To top it off, we are told over and over again (by those pesky sports dietitians!) to eat more carbs during the racing/training season, which equals more calories, which equals more energy. What happens to those carbs if we aren’t training and racing?  You know the answer to that question, perhaps all too well.

Add to the situation two major holidays that basically center around food (really good food): Thanksgiving and Hanukah or Christmas. Not to mention the New Year’s Eve parties with even more really-good-food and calorie-filled beverages.

The bottom-line: weight gain is easy during the off-season but it doesn’t have to be inevitable. Here are six tips to keep you from going up a size or two during the off-season: 

1. Practice mindful-eating. This means paying attention to hunger and satiety cues and heeding them as much as possible. Its ok to indulge in cookies and egg nog a few times but listen to your body and stop when you feel comfortably full (not stuffed). Also, do not eat in front of the TV or computer; its hard to pay attention to fullness cues when you’re glued to a screen.

2. Never go to a holiday party hungry. That’s a recipe for disaster. The food is too tempting and it’s hard to stop eating good food that’s right in front of you when you’re ravenous. Have a small satisfying meal before going to a party to take the edge of your hunger.

3. Put the sport drinks, bars, gels, and gu’s away. Chances are you’re tired of them anyway. But right now you don’t need them and they’re just unnecessary calories (unless you are doing some long runs in which case a few gels are a good idea).

4. Do not skip meals.This only leads to overeating later on (or the next day) and most of the food that is around you during this time is usually high-fat, high-sugar food.

5. Allow yourself your favorite foods but balance them with less calorie-dense foods and physical activity. There’s no way I’m going to pass up mashed potatoes and gravy and pecan pie on Thanksgiving. They’re just too yummy and they’re part of the celebration. But I balance this high-calorie meal by having a smaller meal later on and going for a walk with my family in the evening.

6. Don’t try to lose weight during this time, just focus on staying at the same weight or clothing size.  Now is notthe time to try that new diet you’ve been hearing about (diets don’t work anyway but that’s another story). Rather, enjoy this time of rest and renewal; it’s a great time to slow down and reflect on the year behind you. The entire month of December can be a time to rest and rejuvenate. Eat good food but don’t over-indulge. Move your body in comfortable, relaxing ways. Come January, you’ll be ready to rock-n-roll!

Dialing In Your Nutrition

One of my clients is training for Ironman Arizona and recently he said “as soon as I get my nutrition dialed in, I’m ready to go”.

When I asked him what “dialed in” meant to him, he stuttered and said “well, its where you tell me what to eat, isn’t it?”

Well, sort of.

I can tell anyone what to eat – meal by meal – but obviously its better in the long run to acquire the knowledge necessary to make healthy food choices yourself. And essentially, this is what I love to do: help people learn enough about nutrition so that they have the confidence to plan their own meals and snacks for optimal health and performance.

Since March is National Nutrition Month, here are five nutrition tips to jumpstart your training plan.

1Eat regular meals and snacks. Do NOT skip meals or just munch all day long on whatever is handy. Its too easy to over or undereat this way, which is what most female athletes do, and then they wonder why their race times are not improving. Ideally, you should eat 5 – 6 times a day and focus on nutrient-dense foods (more on that below).

2. Eat a light meal or snack before and after working out.  Of course you can workout on an empty stomach – all of us do once in awhile – but chances are your workout will be mediocre in quality. Maximize that precious training time by having plenty of energy on hand to go the distance (for tips on recovery snacks and meals, see

3Focus on high quality carbs and protein.  A Big Mac with fries and a large Pepsi is a high protein/carb meal but no one in their right mind would say this is a high quality meal. That’s because the protein comes from low-grade, high fat ground beef and cheese, and the carbs come from white bread and sugar-filled Pepsi. A plateful of brown rice, veggies, lean beef (or tofu), and a glass of low-fat milk is also high in protein and carbs but contains a lot more vitamins, minerals, and fiber than the Mickey D meal.

Remember that each meal should have 2-4 oz of lean protein, 3 – 4 servings of grains and vegetables. Top it off with cold milk (regular or soy) and you’ve got yourself a turbo-charging good meal.

4. Avoid processed foods – Yes, this is a no-brainer but still worth mentioning. Packaged cookies, crackers, chips, donuts, frozen meals and the like are fine once in awhile but shouldn’t be a staple of your daily eating plan.

5. Every meal or snack should have at least one fruit or veggie.  This is the one thing most Americans (and many athletes) don’t do enough of, which is ironic considering its also the one thing that people mention when asked what makes up a healthy diet. If you want to get serious about health and wellness, then you better get real familiar with the produce department and all it has to offer. Not only will fruits and veggies give you more energy, they’re likely to keep you from getting sick by supplying lots of natural vitamin C, A, potassium, and other good stuff to make you a lean, mean, training machine.

Start dialing in your nutrition now and you’ll be one step ahead to achieving your training and racing goals.

Make Your Own Sport Drink (And Save A Ton Of Money)

Tired of shelling out $1.00+ per bottle of your favorite sport drink?  Although that may not seem like much, it adds up quickly.  You can easily spend $10.00 a week on something you can easily make with household ingredients.

Not that you should never buy a commercial sport drink; there are times when grabbing a bottle of Gatorade at a convenience store is, well, convenient.  And it’s a good idea to practice long runs and rides with whatever your A race will be providing at aid stations.

But if you’re on a limited budget and you’re training for an event that is likely to take you longer than an hour to finish, you might want to consider making your own sport drink.

First, what does a good sport drink have in it?  There are three essential ingredients in a well-made sport drink for consumption during a long run or ride: water, carbohydrate, and sodium. No, you don’t need potassium, magnesium, and a bunch of vitamins and minerals (you can get those after your long run or ride). Just H20, carbs, and salt will do.

The key is to make your drink so that the carbohydrate concentration is between 6% and 8%.  If it’s higher than that, you run the risk of GI distress and frequent trips to the port-a-potty. If it’s lower than that, you might as well drink water.

And why not just drink water, you ask?  Water is the fluid of choice for replacing the fluid you lose in sweat but there are some advantages to having a few carbs and a smidgeon of sodium in each sip you take, especially on a hot day.

The carbs help to delay the depletion of glycogen in your muscles and the salt replaces the sodium you are losing in all that sweat your body is producing. Sodium also makes you thirstier, which makes you drink more, which makes you take in more fluid, which prevents dehydration. Sodium also helps prevent hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels) which can result from drinking too much water.

Knowing this, you can find all these ingredients in your own kitchen. For carbs, you can use plain old sugar or honey (remember, the amount is small and your muscles will take it up quickly so no need to worry about causing your blood sugar to go out of whack).

Here are two recipes that are approximately 6% carbohydrate concentration.  Keep in mind they will taste very “dilute” because they are low in sugar and salt. You can add other flavorings or a few drops of pomegranate juice to add some color.

4 cups water

2 Tb lemon juice

1/8 teaspoon of salt

5 Tb sugar


4 cups of water

2 Tb of lemon juice

1/8 teas of salt

4 Tb honey

Mix together in a BPA-free water bottle and wa-la, you’ve got an inexpensive sport drink!

Is Coconut Water A Good Sports Drink?

One of the best parts of my job as a sports dietitian is sifting through new products for endurance athletes and evaluating their claims as facts or fiction. Since most products fall into the “bogus” category, imagine my delight to see coconut water touted as “an all-natural, super-hydrating, nutrient-packed, potassium-stacked, mega-electrolyte” sports drink.

Why?  Because most of that statement is true. Coconut water, which is the clear liquid that sloshes around inside a coconut, really is high in potassium. One cup provides about 500 mg of potassium along with reasonable amounts of sodium and magnesium, and smaller amounts of phosphorous an vitamin C. Natural sugars give it a mildly sweet taste and there’s no fat or cholesterol.

It’s no wonder that numerous beverage companies now sell coconut water in bottles and cans, touting it as a “natural” sports drink.

But like many other nutrition products, what starts off as a great idea, ends up as another fad that quickly fades into oblivion before you know it.

One of the problems with bottled or canned coconut water is that they don’t always contain what they say they contain. According to a recent product review by, an independent testing company, two out of the three products they tested had significantly less sodium than what their labels claimed they had.

This is important because the primary electrolyte we lose in our sweat is sodium; we lose far more sodium than potassium when we sweat and it needs to be replaced in long endurance events.

One package of O.N.E. Coconut Water  had only 11 mg of sodium, much less than the 60 mg stated on the label and a whole lot less than the recommended 240 mg per serving it would need to be called a good sport drink.

Another problem with coconut water is that it produces a mild laxative effect in some users, most likely due to it’s high magnesium content. Obviously this is not what you want in the middle of a long training bout or race!

Lastly, coconut water is expensive. A 414 mL bottle of Zico Natural Cocounut Water is $2.50, a pricey way to get the same nutrients you’d get in a glass of orange juice.

Bottom line?  Coconut water is a much healthier alternative to soda pop or sweetened fruit drinks but it is not an effective sports drink because of the low sodium and higher magnesium content. In this case, it’s better to make your own sports drink or stick to the preformulated, “tried and true” products, like Gatorade or Powerade (for events longer than 90 mins) and of course, plain old water for shorter events. Drink up!

Guess Which Snack Food Is Full Of Antioxidants?

Quick: which food has the most antioxidants:

  • apples
  • whole wheat bread
  • popcorn
  • broccoli

If you said popcorn, you were right! Recent research by Dr. Joe Vinson reveals that popcorn has more “polyphenols” than most fruits or vegetables.

Polyphenols are known for their role in preventing many degenerative diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and some cancers. They may also reduce some of the oxidative damage caused by strenuous exercise, which aids the recovery process.

Dr. Vinson’s research shows that popcorn contains up to 300 mg of polyphenols per serving compared to 160 for one serving of most fruits. Sweet corn has only 114 mg per serving, making popcorn a high antioxidant food.

And there’s more good news: popcorn is the only snack food in the American diet that is 100% unprocessed whole grain.  All the other grains are processed and contain additional ingredients. A single serving of popcorn will provide >70% of the daily requirement for whole grain. Most people get about half a serving of whole grain each day so popcorn could fill that void quite easily.

Of course, if you slather it with butter and salt, you put a major dent in the nutritional value of popcorn. But eating it air-popped or microwaved is a good way to go. Microwave popcorn has more calories than air-popped but the amount of polyphenols is the same.

So next time you need a quick, healthy snack, reach for the popcorn and enjoy!

Controlling Inflammation With Food

Inflammation:  We hear the word among our injured friends.  We know if we sprain our ankle, an inflammatory response takes place and the ankle swells.  Inflammation can be a good thing to help trigger a healing response in our bodies.  However, chronic inflammation in our bodies can be the cause of disease, pain and injury.  There are many different factors that can contribute to long term inflammation in our bodies.  As an athlete, you are constantly putting stresses on your body causing in inflammatory process.  The muscles and tissues get stressed during activity and inflammation will take place to help start the recovery process.  But what happens when the inflammation persists?  Have you ever noticed an ache in your knee after running or in your shoulder after swimming?  You discover that ice and ibuprofen are soon your best friends.  While these are great controllers of inflammation for an acute bout, it is not a long term solution.  What if we could naturally promote inflammation control in our bodies to help keep us healthy?  Guess what, we can.

An anti-inflammatory diet can help keep pain and inflammation at bay and keep you healthier during your training.  The number one key is to eat REAL food!  Processed foods tend to have a lot of added sugars or chemicals and can increase inflammatory levels in the body.  I would like to share with you some tasty (real) foods to incorporate into your diet.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids:  Are good fats that help decrease inflammation.  Foods include:

Wild caught salmon


Flax, pumpkin, sunflower seeds

Wheat germ

Shiitake Mushrooms:  Have anti-inflammatory and immune boosting properties.

Green Tea:  Flavanoids in green tea have anti-inflammatory compounds and are also seen to reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer.

Ginger:  Helps control blood sugar and inflammation.

Garlic:  Can help reduce inflammation, regulate blood glucose and help the body fight infection.

Turmeric:  This Asian spice (found in Curry) contains Curamin, a natural anti-inflammatory compound said to have a similar effect as over the counter pain relievers.

Chili Peppers:  Contains Capsaicin, a potent inhibitor of Substance P, a neuropeptide associated with the inflammatory process.  The hotter the pepper, the more Capsaicin; therefore more anti-inflammatory properties.

Papaya:  Contains “Papain”,  a protein-digesting enzyme.  Together, with nutrients such as Vitamin C and E, Papain helps decrease inflammation and improves digestion.

Blueberries:  Filled with antioxidants and high in phytonutrients that has been shown to be involved in inflammation as well as protect against diseases like cancer and dementia.

Extra Virgin Olive Oil:  Filled with polyphenols to protect the heart and blood vessels from inflammation.  The monounsaturated fats are also anti-inflammatory agents that help lower occurrences of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.

Broccoli:  Contains anti-inflammatory and anti cancer phytonutrients such as sulforaphane which helps the body rid itself from potentially carcinogenic compounds.

Sweet Potatoes:  Great source of carbohydrate, Beta-Carotene, Manganese, Vitamins B6 and C, and fiber.  These nutrients are powerful antioxidants to help heal inflammation from the body.

Cinnamon:  Has been shown useful in mitigating arthritis, block inflammation and enhance insulin function.

These are just some of the many natural foods that you can incorporate into your diet to control the inflammatory process in your body.  Will eating all these foods everyday guarantee you will not get injured or sick?  Absolutely not.  But the more you can control what goes into your body by ingesting healthy, real foods, the greater the odds of you staying healthy, strong, injury free.  So go get your workout in and reward yourself by making yourself some amazing food to fuel your recovery!

If you have any questions, please contact me.

Fueling Early Morning Workouts

Your alarm goes off at 5:00 AM (or earlier) and you have 30 mins to gulp down coffee, get your gear ready, and get out the door to swim, bike, or run. The 64 million dollar question is: should you eat and if so, what should you eat?

The quick answer is yes, you should eat something but what (and how much) you eat depends on several things.

First, think about what is going on inside that fine-tuned body of yours. If your last meal was several hours before you went to bed, chances are you have used up all the glycogen in your liver throughout the night (this is one of the ways we maintain blood sugar at night: we break down glycogen from the liver).

If this is the case and you don’t eat anything before attempting a high intensity workout (or a long workout), you will be starting this workout at a slight disadvantage because your liver glycogen is gone. This means you will only have muscle glycogen to supply your muscles with glucose (unless you want to break down muscle for amino acids to be converted to glucose or use the few free fatty acids floating around for energy). This is not good.

If you are only planning on a short, easy workout, you can easily get by with the aforementioned nutrients but if you are planning a longer, more intense workout, then keep reading.

If you decide to ingest a high carb food or beverage before your workout, these carbs will be in the bloodstream within 30 minutes and on their happy way to your fast-moving muscles. This is good.

If you decide to eat or drink something high in fat and/or protein and low in carbs, you’ll have a little energy to play with but not much.

It may help to know a few facts about digestion and “substrate utilization”:

  • When food is digested, it is broken down into fat, protein, or carbohydrate. These “macronutrients” are metabolized at different rates with carbs being the fastest (especially simple sugars), and protein and fat being the slowest: they can hang out in your stomach for several hours before moving on to the small intestine. While fat and protein help you to feel fuller longer, they’re not a good choice to consume prior to high-intensity exercise or you may end up with severe GI cramps.
  • Lower intensity exercise uses about 50/50 carbs and fat for energy so if you don’t eat breakfast before doing an easy workout, you probably won’t run out of glycogen because you’re not oxidizing that much carbohydrate for energy. But the total number of calories burned is much less than in high intensity activity so don’t fall for the myth that low intensity exercise is best for “fat-burning” because it is not. The percentage of fat being used for energy is higher in low intensity activity but the total number of calories burned is less than what is burned in high intensity activity.
  • High intensity activity uses 80 – 100% carbohydrate for energy, most of which comes from stored glycogen. You can use up a good portion of your glycogen with 30 – 60 minutes of high intensity training. This is why its important to eat or drink something high in carbs before an intense workout. You’ll have a lot more energy if you do.

The ideal situation is to eat a high carb breakfast 2 hours prior to a hard workout (or extra long workout) but if that is not possible, get something in your tummy before heading out the door.

What should you eat or drink? Here are a few real-food suggestions for quick high-energy snacks to eat within 30 mins of exercise:

  • Yogurt and juice (use 100% fruit juice for more nutrition)
  • Banana and half of a small bagel
  • Small muffin or lowfat cookie (Fig Newtons or homemade cookies) and juice
  • Handful of Cheerios and apple juice (for you parents out there!)
  • Drinkable yogurt and banana
  • Sports bar and juice or grapes

These also work for pre-race “meals” when you don’t have time to eat a full breakfast.  By taking in some carbs before the workout, you will prevent your blood sugar from dropping too low and delay the depletion of your muscle glycogen stores.

Lastly, prepare your food/beverage the night before so that when you wake up, all you have to do is grab and go. Make those early morning workouts worth the effort by giving your body what it needs to do the job right!

Three Nutrition Resolutions To Nourish Your Body And Soul

Resolution #1 – Dare to ditch dieting

I’m hoping that most of you are not dieting, being the turbo-charged athletes that you are (you are a GOTRIbal member, right?), but some of you might be tempted to jump on the bodyfat-is-a-killer bandwagon. Before you do, consider these facts:

  • Dieting does not produce lasting weight loss. It only produces temporary weight loss. Most people who lose weight by dieting gain it all back (plus some) within 5 years.
  • Weight cycling can harm your health. Losing and gaining and losing and gaining weight is worse for you than if you never lost weight in the first place. Studies show weight cycling can raise your risk for heart disease and high blood pressure.
  • It’s very hard to train for an endurance event while dieting. Your body needs calories (especially carbohydrates) and without adequate amounts of either, you’re not likely to do very well. If you’re a junk food junkie, then yes, cutting back on the sweet/fatty stuff is a good idea. Just don’t restrict your calories so much that you have no energy to train properly.
  • Healthy bodies come in all shapes and sizes. Some of the strongest women I know are “women of size”. Be proud of your body and what it can do regardless of what the scale says.
  • Lastly, many diets are not nutritionally-balanced. They are usually lacking in vitamins or minerals, such as calcium, iron, and zinc. High protein diets are usually low in B vitamins which play a key role in energy production. Sure, you can take a supplement but did you know that many supplements do not contain the amount of nutrient it claims to have on the label? (More on that one in a future article!)

Resolution #2 – Try a new food each week (or month)

Most people eat the same foods over and over again. Resolve to buy one new food (preferably something from the produce section) each week and experiment with different ways of serving it. How about trying chopped yellow peppers (high in vitamin C) on your homemade pizza?  Or stir-frying some tofu with your favorite veggies for a high protein, low fat meal? Or serving up some couscous or quinoa with your grilled chicken?  Be adventurous and have fun with it!

Resolution #3 – Practice mindful eating

Mindful eating is not about eating less, it’s about self-care. When you eat mindfully, you are more aware of internal cues for hunger and fullness, making it easier to eat when you are physically hungry and stopping when you’re comfortably full. This takes some practice but it’s well worth the effort.

Mindful eating also helps you to truly enjoy the taste of the food you are eating. By slowing down and savoring each bite, it’s easier to stop when you’re full and feel satisfied. Have you ever ate a food so fast that you didn’t even taste what you were eating? That’s mindless eating which almost always leads to excess calories and negative feelings about food (or yourself).

Taking small steps to improve your diet (or your relationship with food) is the best way to make lasting changes to the way you eat. Resolve to make these changes now and make this year a banner year for a healthy mind, body, and soul!